Markopoulos, G, Green, J, Rutherford, A and Cairns, C (2010) 'Encoding instructions and stimulus presentation in local environmental context-dependent memory studies.' Memory, 18 (6). pp. 610-624. ISSN 0965-8211

Official URL:


Murnane and Phelps (1993) recommend word pair presentations in local environmental context (EC) studies to prevent associations being formed between successively presented items and their ECs and a consequent reduction in the EC effect. Two experiments were conducted to assess the veracity of this assumption. In Experiment 1, participants memorised single words or word pairs, or categorised them as natural or man made. Their free recall protocols were examined to assess any associations established between successively presented items. Fewest associations were observed when the item-specific encoding task (i.e., natural or man made categorisation of word referents) was applied to single words. These findings were examined further in Experiment 2, where the influence of encoding instructions and stimulus presentation on local EC dependent recognition memory was examined. Consistent with recognition dual-process signal detection model predictions and findings (e.g., Macken, 2002; Parks & Yonelinas, 2008), recollection sensitivity, but not familiarity sensitivity, was found to be local EC dependent. However, local EC dependent recognition was observed only after item-specific encoding instructions, irrespective of stimulus presentation. These findings and the existing literature suggest that the use of single word presentations and item-specific encoding enhances local EC dependent recognition.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Recognition memory, Associative links, Environmental context, Presentation method, Dual-process account
Divisions: College of Liberal Arts
Date Deposited: 06 Feb 2013 11:11
Last Modified: 29 Apr 2016 14:11
Request a change to this item or report an issue Request a change to this item or report an issue
Update item (repository staff only) Update item (repository staff only)