Marshall, A (2019) '‘Secret wheeles’: clandestine information, espionage, and European intelligence.' In: Duindam, J.F.J, Ebben, M.A and Sicking, L, eds. Beyond ambassadors: missionaries, consuls and spies in pre-modern diplomacy. Brill, Netherlands. (Forthcoming)


This essay will explore some of the roles played by secret intelligence gathering and espionage, and the work of some of the spies employed in the Europe of the mid-seventeenth-century, and in doing so it will make particular reference to the social, political, and cultural impact of certain intelligence agents who were active in the period. Moreover, to explore this world we will re-evaluate the distinctive roles played by Ignatius, Richard and Andrew White: all three brothers, who were not only members of an exiled Irish family, and of the Irish exile community in Europe, but also played a role within the transnational intelligence world of the late 1650s and early 1660s. Operating across borders in Spain, France, England, and Flanders, the White brothers deliver a valuable example of how such non-state (or at least loosely attached in some cases) actors could function in what in what Alain Hugon has fittingly called ‘Le monde du secret’.

Item Type: Book Chapter or Section

Part of the 'Rulers and Elites: Comparative Studies in Governance' series.

Abstract reference: D Carrió-Innvernizzi, ‘A new diplomatic history and the networks of Spanish diplomacy in the Baroque era’, The International History Review, 36 (2014), 607; A Hugon, Au service du roi catholique – ‘honourables ambassadeurs’ et ‘divins espions’ representation diplomatique et secret service dans les relations Hispano-Françaises de 1598 á 1635 (Madrid, 2004), 359

Keywords: spies, intelligence, European history, 1600-1700, Ireland, Cromwellian Britain, France, Spain, Low Countries, Fronde
Subjects: D History General and Old World > DA Great Britain
D History General and Old World > DC France
D History General and Old World > DH Netherlands (The Low Countries)
D History General and Old World > DJ Netherlands (Holland)
D History General and Old World > DP Spain
U Military Science > U Military Science (General)
Divisions: College of Liberal Arts
Date Deposited: 17 May 2018 15:41
Last Modified: 17 May 2018 15:41
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